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Why Are Emulsifiers Added To Bread

Date:2024-06-19
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In bread making, emulsifiers are essential ingredients that improve dough handling, enhance bread volume and texture, and extend shelf life. In this article, we discuss the functions of emulsifiers in bread and the common bread emulsifiers.
 

What Do Emulsifiers Do In Bread Dough


Bread emulsifiers are added to bread for several reasons, primarily to improve the quality, texture, and shelf life of the bread. Here are the key benefits and functionalities of emulsifiers in bread production:


1. Emulsifiers as Surfactants:

Bread emulsifiers are more accurately described as surfactants in bread dough because the dough’s viscosity limits the movement of lipids, preventing the phase separation of water and oil. They stabilize the mixture by accumulating at interfaces and decreasing interfacial tension.
 

2. Interaction with Gluten Proteins:

Bread emulsifiers bind to the lipophilic parts of gluten proteins during mixing, enhancing gluten protein aggregation and stabilizing the dough. This binding increases dough development time and stability, allowing it to withstand excessive kneading. Emulsifiers like DATEM form hydrogen bonds with gluten and starch, strengthening the dough structure.
 

3. Incorporation and Stabilization of Gas Bubbles:

Bread emulsifiers help incorporate tiny gas bubbles during dough mixing, which is crucial as these bubbles expand during fermentation. They stabilize the protein-lipid interface around gas bubbles, preventing them from merging into larger bubbles. This results in a lighter, softer crumb with many small to medium gas bubbles.
 

4.Suppression of Lipid Binding:

Emulsifiers suppress the binding of free lipids to other dough components like gluten, aiding in the formation and stabilization of gas bubbles during fermentation. They stabilize expanding gas bubbles by forming liquid crystals that support the gas-aqueous dough interface.
 

5.Delaying Bread Staling:

Bread emulsifiers prevent bread from becoming hard during storage by interfering with starch retrogradation. They primarily interact with amylose to hinder the formation of its gel network. Additionally, they partially bind with amylopectin, which reduces its crystallization and network formation to a lesser extent.

bread emulsifiers examples

 

What Emulsifiers Are Used In Bread Making


1. Natural Emulsifiers:

Lecithin: Lecithin is an emulsifier found in egg yolks, soybeans, and other sources. In bread making, lecithin helps improve dough elasticity by interacting with gluten proteins, resulting in better dough handling and shaping. It also aids in moisture retention, contributing to a softer crumb and increased shelf life of the bread.

Enzyme-based Emulsifiers: Enzymes such as lipases and alpha-amylases can act as emulsifiers in bread making by modifying the interactions between water, lipids, and proteins. Lipases, for example, can hydrolyze fats into mono- and diglycerides, which act as emulsifiers, improving dough texture and crumb softness. Alpha-amylases help break down starches into simpler sugars, which can enhance fermentation and contribute to a finer crumb structure in the finished bread.


2. Synthetic or Semi-synthetic Emulsifiers:

Mono- and diglycerides: These are synthetic emulsifiers produced by reacting glycerol with fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats. In bread making, mono- and diglycerides help to stabilize dough by reducing friction between gluten strands, thereby improving dough consistency and handling. They also contribute to a softer texture and increased volume in the final bread product.

DATEM (Diacetyl Tartaric Acid Esters of Monoglycerides): DATEM is a synthetic emulsifier derived from tartaric acid and monoglycerides. It functions by strengthening the gluten network in the dough, which enhances its elasticity and volume. DATEM emulsifier also improves dough tolerance during processing and contributes to a uniform crumb structure in bread.


3. Ester-based Emulsifiers:

Citric Acid Esters of Mono- and Diglycerides (CITREM): CITREM e472c is synthesized by esterifying mono- and diglycerides with citric acid. In bread making, the CITREM emulsifier improves the mixing tolerance of dough and enhances gas retention during fermentation, resulting in improved volume and texture of the bread. It also helps in achieving a finer and more uniform crumb structure.


4. Polymeric Emulsifiers:

Polyglycerol Esters of Fatty Acids (PGE): PGE emulsifiers are polymeric emulsifiers formed by esterifying glycerol with fatty acids. They are effective in stabilizing air bubbles in dough, which improves gas retention during proofing and baking. PGE E475 contributes to a softer and more uniform crumb texture in bread, as well as increased volume and extended freshness.


5. Mineral-based Emulsifiers:

Calcium Stearoyl Lactylate (CSL): CSL emulsifier is derived from stearic acid, lactic acid, and calcium hydroxide. It functions as both an emulsifier and a dough conditioner in bread making. Calcium Stearoyl Lactylate improves dough handling properties by enhancing gluten strength and elasticity. It also contributes to increased volume, finer texture, and improved shelf life of the bread.


6. Combination Emulsifiers:

Acetylated Monoglycerides (ACETEM): ACETEM is a combination of acetic acid and monoglycerides. It acts as an emulsifier in bread making by improving dough stability and gas retention. ACETEM E472a emulsifier helps to achieve a softer crumb and extended freshness in bread, making it suitable for a variety of baked goods.


Emulsifier Baking Substitute


As emulsifiers primarily stabilize food systems, any ingredient capable of fulfilling this role has the potential to substitute specific emulsifiers. Enzymes, hydrocolloids, proteins, and modified starches are favored alternatives due to their cleaner labeling profiles. Additionally, plant-based proteins are increasingly utilized for their emulsifying properties as substitutes for traditional emulsifiers.

Enzymes: Enzymes like phospholipase and transglutaminases enhance dough texture, volume, and gas retention by catalyzing protein or peptide bonds.

Modified Starches: These granules absorb water at lower temperatures, swelling to increase dough or batter viscosity and stabilize the food system.

Proteins: Responsible for strength, water-holding, foaming, flavor, and color in bakery goods. Examples include wheat gluten, whey protein, egg whites, or soy isolates.

Hydrocolloids: Though not traditional emulsifiers, hydrocolloids like gum arabic, methylcellulose (MC), and xanthan gum increase water surface viscosity and interact with surface-active substances to stabilize emulsions.


Where Can I Buy Emulsifier For Baking


CHEMSINO is dedicated to producing a wide range of food additives, including bread emulsifiers. Buying bread emulsifiers wholesale from CHEMSINO ensures competitive prices, making it cost-effective for bulk purchases. Additionally, CHEMSINO offers free samples to customers worldwide, allowing customers to evaluate our products before making larger orders. So, CHEMSINO firm is a reliable choice for sourcing bread emulsifiers in larger quantities, whether for commercial bakeries or food manufacturers.
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