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What Are Polyglycerol Esters Of Fatty Acids

Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids are formed by the direct esterification of polyglycerol with fatty acids. They are a group of superior non-ionic surfactants and emulsifiers. With excellent emulsifying, dispersing, wetting, and stabilizing capabilities, they are extensively utilized in the food industry. This blog focuses on the E475 emulsifier, detailing its functions and applications on food products.

Physical and Chemical Properties of Polyglycerol Esters of Fatty Acids

Surface Activity: Due to their molecular structure containing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts, polyglycerol esters of fatty acids e475 typically exhibit surface activity, lowering the surface tension of liquids and acting as emulsifiers to stabilize emulsions. The higher the degree of polyglycerol polymerization, the shorter the fatty acid chain, and the lower the degree of esterification, the stronger the hydrophilicity, and conversely, the stronger the lipophilicity.

Thermal Stability: Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids have strong thermal stability and acid resistance. They also exhibit good emulsifying properties even in environments with high salt content.

Iodine Value: The iodine value of polyglycerol esters of fatty acids typically ranges from 1 to 75, and the saponification value ranges from 68 to 180.

HLB Value: The hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) value of food-grade polyglycerol esters of fatty acids (PGE) typically ranges from approximately 2 to 16, making them one of the emulsifiers with the widest range of HLB values. They exhibit good synergistic effects when used in combination with other emulsifiers such as monoglycerides.

In summary, polyglycerol esters of fatty acids possess surface activity, thermal stability, acid resistance, and emulsifying properties, making them versatile additives in various food applications.


polyglycerol esters of fatty acids e475

What is the Function of PGE?

Emulsification: The emulsifying action of polyglycerol esters of fatty acids is related to their hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) value. Depending on the degree of polymerization of polyglycerol, the length of the fatty acid carbon chain, and the degree of esterification, their HLB value can range from 2 to 16, serving as both hydrophilic and lipophilic emulsifiers.

Aerating Agent: When added to lipid-containing materials, polyglycerol esters can introduce air into the lipid-containing material, reducing density and generating the desired bubble structure for aeration.

Quality Improvement: Adding polyglycerol esters to starch-based foods can create a smooth film layer between gluten and starch, adjusting dough properties and preventing aging. It acts as a dough softener, extending the softness and palatability of baked products. It also improves the dough's pore structure, resulting in a finer and more uniform texture, thereby effectively enhancing the quality of food products.

Crystal Adjustment: Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids e475 have a dual function of promoting and inhibiting crystal formation. Lipophilic polyglycerol esters promote crystal formation, particularly long-chain saturated fatty acid series, while hydrophilic ones inhibit crystal formation.

Viscosity Adjustment: Polyglycerol esters e475 can improve the dispersibility of components in chocolate production, resulting in a smooth texture and reducing viscosity during processing, with better results than traditional lecithin and sucrose esters.

Antimicrobial Activity: In addition to their excellent emulsifying properties, polyglycerol esters of fatty acids also exhibit strong antimicrobial effects, inhibiting the growth of bacteria and yeast. The antimicrobial activity of polyglycerol esters is related to the length of the carbon chain, with medium-chain fatty acid polyglycerol esters (C10 to C14) showing better efficacy, making them both excellent food emulsifiers and efficient, safe food preservatives.

What Are Polyglycerol Esters Used For?

Application in Baked Goods:

Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids e475 facilitate a more uniform dispersion of fats, water, and sugar in the dough-making process of baked goods, thereby enhancing the quality and significantly improving sensory attributes. For instance, in the production of cookies, adding a small amount of polyglycerol esters enables complete emulsification and dispersion of fats with the ingredients, enhancing the crispiness and mouthfeel of the cookies. In bread processing applications, the addition of polyglycerol esters increases the volume of bread by a quarter, resulting in a finely porous and uniform internal structure, increased elasticity, and improved softness.

In cake manufacturing, the addition of polyglycerol esters increases the batter volume by 17% and cake volume by 28%, with evenly distributed pores, improving flavor and enhancing chewiness. Additionally, polyglycerol esters can serve as foaming agents for sugar frostings used in pastry decoration and similar food items. Compared to conventional egg white foaming, they offer better stability, reduced water loss, a light and airy texture, and protection against microbial contamination in unbaked cakes.

PGE e475 emulsifier in baking

Application in Cream:

Artificial cream belongs to the W/O type emulsion and primarily employs lipophilic emulsifiers. Polyglycerol esters not only uniformly disperse water and fat, preventing phase separation, but also act as crystal modifiers, adjusting the texture, mouthfeel, and flavor of artificial cream, thereby extending its shelf life.

For pastries and desserts, which use cream as O/W type emulsions, primarily hydrophilic emulsifiers are employed. The singular use of high HLB value polyglycerol esters or their combination with soy lecithin, monoglycerides, etc., can enhance the emulsion stability, foaming properties, and shape retention of the cream. Additionally, when used as emulsifiers for acidic whipped cream, they still exhibit excellent O/W emulsification properties under acidic conditions.

Application in Ice Cream:

Ice cream, an O/W type emulsion, primarily uses hydrophilic emulsifiers. Polyglycerol esters, especially those derived from stearic acid, are commonly used, either alone or in combination with sorbitan esters. They enhance fat dispersion in the mix, promote fat-protein interaction, and improve air incorporation, leading to increased volume, smoother texture, and longer shelf life.

Application in Beverages:

Polyglycerol esters improve stability and prevent protein aggregation in plant protein beverages. In protein drinks, they are often used in conjunction with other emulsifiers to enhance emulsification and stability. They also prevent oil ring formation in acidic drinks and improve dispersibility in powdered beverages.

Application in Chocolate and Confectionery:

In the production of chocolate and chocolate products, the addition of small amounts of polyglycerol esters serves multiple purposes. It reduces the system viscosity, decreases the amount of cocoa butter required, thereby lowering costs, and ensures uniform and fine crystallization. This improves the glossiness, hardness, and shelf-life of the product. For example, in milk chocolate containing 45% fat, adding 0.3% polyglycerol triacetate reduces viscosity by 43%, nearly twice as effective as soy lecithin. Research indicates that adding 1% polyglycerol esters to cocoa butter can also prevent chocolate bloom.

PGE e475 Emulsifier In Chocolate

What Are Polyglycerol Esters Of Fatty Acids In Cosmetics?

Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids in cosmetics are emulsifiers commonly used to stabilize oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions. They are derived from the esterification of polyglycerol with fatty acids, typically sourced from plant oils such as coconut or palm oil. In cosmetics, these emulsifiers help blend oil and water-based ingredients, creating stable formulations for products like lotions, creams, and serums. Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids contribute to the smooth texture, even application, and overall stability of cosmetic formulations, enhancing their effectiveness and user experience.

FAQs About Polyglycerol Esters Of Fatty Acids PGE

Are Polyglycerol Esters Of Fatty Acids Safe?

Polyglycerol Esters of Fatty Acids (E475) are considered safe for consumption when used in food products within recommended limits. They are widely used as emulsifiers in the food industry to improve texture, consistency, and stability in various products such as baked goods, dairy products, confectionery, and more.

Are Polyglycerol Esters Of Fatty Acids Vegan?

Polyglycerol Esters of Fatty Acids can be derived from both animal and plant sources. When sourced from plant-based oils, e475 emulsifiers for sale are considered vegetarian. However, when derived from animal fats, they are not considered vegetarian.

Is E475 Halal Or Not?

Yes, E475 (Polyglycerol Esters of Fatty Acids) manufactured by the CHEMSINO firm has passed the Halal & Kosher, RSPO, ISO22000, and ISO9001 certificates. We are polyglycerol esters of fatty acids supplier and maker in China. Contact us now for detailed quotes and free samples.
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