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What Are the Uses of DATEM (E472e) in Food Production

DATEM stands for "Diacetyl Tartaric Acid Esters of Mono- and Diglycerides". It is an emulsifier commonly used in food production. In this blog post, we primarily discussed the presence of DATEM emulsifiers in products such as bread, cakes, and biscuits, focusing on their functionality and benefits in these food items.

What is DATEM in Food?

DATEM was first sold as dough conditioners in the United States as early as 1948. Since 1976, they have been used as food emulsifiers in baked goods. In Europe, during the 1960s, DATEM was not only used in baked goods but also found applications in various food products such as confectionery and imitation cream.

When used with saturated fatty acids, DATEM is a white or pale yellow powdery solid with a melting point of 45°C. When used with unsaturated fatty acids, it is a yellowish paste or viscous liquid. At CHEMSINO (DATEM emulsifier manufacturers), it is commonly found as a milky white powder or granular solid, with a pH of approximately 4, showing weak acidity. Its melting range is around 45°C, with an HLB value of 8.0. DATEM emulsifier has a distinctive acetic acid odor, disperses in hot water, and is miscible with fats. It dissolves in ethanol, propylene glycol, and other organic solvents. Its chemical structure is represented as CH₂OC=OCHOCO CH₃CHOCO CH₃COOH-CHOH-CH₂OCO(CH₂)16CH₃

Due to its high hygroscopicity, DATEM fine powders tend to agglomerate, especially in hot and humid conditions during the summer or improper storage. Typically, it is formulated into granules or mixed with 20% anti-caking agents when in powder form.

Why is DATEM in Biscuits

DATEM E472e VS. Common Food Emulsifiers

Name HLB Value Interaction Level with Proteins Complexation Index with Linear Starch
DATEM 8.0-8.2 100 49
SSL 8-10 95 72
CSL 5-6 95 65
GMS 3-5 15 87-92
Polysorbate 60 15 --- 30
Soy Lecithin 3-4 --- 16

The largest market for emulsifiers internationally is in the baking industry. In bread products, the most commonly used emulsifiers include Sodium/Calcium Stearoyl Lactylate (SSL/CSL), Diacetyl Tartaric Acid Esters of Mono- and Diglycerides (DATEM), Glyceryl Monostearate (GMS), and Lecithin. They interact with gluten proteins to form complexes, allowing gluten molecules to connect and create a large gluten network.

These emulsifiers help enhance the elasticity, toughness, and gas retention of dough, increase bread volume, and improve bread structure. They also interact with linear starch, delaying product aging. When flour quality is good and operations are well-controlled, bread made with DATEM typically has a larger volume compared to other emulsifiers.

Applications of DATEM in Various Food Products

DATEM functions as a versatile emulsifier and dispersant, improving emulsification, preventing oil-water separation, and enhancing dough strength while increasing volume and improving texture. It also forms complexes with starch, improving its characteristics, and when used in cream, it creates a soft, smooth, and delicate texture.

DATEM e472e exhibits emulsifying, stabilizing, anti-aging, and preserving effects. It is applied in products such as bread, pastry, biscuits, cereal foods, extruded foods, cream, hydrogenated vegetable oils, vegetable fat powders, soups, and concentrated colorants.


Why is DATEM in Bread

Why is DATEM in Bread?

The primary function of DATEM lies in its ability to rapidly and thoroughly combine with hydrated gluten in any yeast-fermented dough based on wheat flour. This enhances the gluten network, making it stronger and more elastic, thereby aiding in increasing gas retention. The resulting dough exhibits a network of small-sized bubbles with strong and stretchable walls. When flour protein content is insufficient or below ideal quality, incorporating DATEM stabilizes the dough at the end of normal fermentation, resulting in bread with higher specific volume and a more uniform appearance. Generally, the recommended usage level is 0.1% to 0.3% of the flour weight.

In high-quality bread flour formulations, the DATEM baking ingredient plays a more significant role in enhancing gas retention capability. Particularly effective during the transition from fermentation to baking and in the early stages of baking, especially for bread requiring extended fermentation processes, the DATEM emulsifier provides fermentation stability at low fermentation temperatures for 2 to 16 hours.

In whole wheat bread and nut-added bread, wheat bran particles, wheat fragments, and nuts may disrupt the dough's bubble network. One approach to overcome this is adding wheat gluten to the formula, another is using DATEM emulsifier, and ideally, a combination of both. However, DATEM has minimal impact on the properties of starch-water mixtures, hence does not directly alter or reduce aging or aging rate. In low-additive or crusty bread, bakers prefer bread improvers containing DATEM to achieve maximum gas retention. In bread, DATEM e472e synergistically enhances the effects of oxidants such as vitamin C, ADA, and enzymes, with the recommended usage level being 0.2% to 0.6% of the flour weight.

Why is DATEM in Cakes?

DATEM emulsifier exhibits remarkable foaming properties, allowing it to form a stable interface film around air bubbles. This stability ensures even distribution of air throughout the cake batter, resulting in cakes with uniform and thin-walled bubbles.

Moreover, when fats are incorporated into the cake recipe, DATEM e472e facilitates the dispersion of fats into smaller and more uniform particles. These fine fat particles contribute to a better texture and a softer mouthfeel in the finished cake product.

In particular, when producing cakes using the one-step method, where all ingredients are mixed simultaneously, the addition of emulsifiers such as DATEM, Sodium Stearoyl Lactylate (SSL), and Glyceryl Monostearate (GMS) is essential for achieving a well-structured sponge. These emulsifiers help stabilize the batter, improve its aeration, and enhance the overall quality of the cake.


DATEM in cakes

Why is DATEM in Biscuits and Puffed Snacks?

DATEM emulsifier facilitates the emulsification of fats, making emulsified fats easily absorbable by gluten, thereby improving mechanical processing performance. During baking, it undergoes thermal expansion, facilitating protein foaming, increasing volume, and gradually solidifying to form a porous sponge-like structure in the center layer, enhancing product lightness, texture, and shelf life. Adding 0.12% to 0.5% DATEM can reduce fat content in biscuits by approximately 20%, achieving good health and dietary effects.

Adding 0.2% to 0.5% DATEM in puffed snacks serves as an effective emulsifier and lubricant. It helps reduce extrusion pressure, minimize equipment wear, and produce puffed products with smooth surfaces, fine pores, and a crispy texture. E472e emulsifier also decreases product moisture absorption, thereby extending shelf life.

The Bottom Line

In conclusion, DATEM emulsifiers are indispensable in the food industry, providing superior emulsification, texture enhancement, and shelf life extension across various products. Want to enhance your food products? Contact us for pricing and free samples of the CHEMSINO DATEM premium emulsifier.
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